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Az alábbiakban olvashatók mindazok az események melyek velem szakmai pályám alatt megestek, vagy amelyek befolyással voltak rá. Kedves Olvasó! Kérlek jóindulattal olvasd soraimat és ha érdekesnek, tanulságosnak, esetleg szórakoztatónak találod meséld tovább ismerőseidnek. Pap Norbert

2013. szeptember 20., péntek

Suleiman the Magnificent in Szigetvár (press release)

The research team has done a very intense and at the same time very fruitful work for the past eight months. In contrast to the past, it set about to perform the tasks with a completely new approach. It has examined and found a number of previously unknown clues, sources and evidence while doing research on the traces of the  tomb of Suleiman the Magnificent in Szigetvár. It gained several new insights, then made a a rather surprising discovery at a surprising place. The research group discovered an  Ottoman lost city (kaszaba), which could have been established by sacredness, political considerations and the demand for remembrance.
Our main statements are:
1) Sultan Suleiman passed away on 6th September 1566 in the military siege camp of Szigetvár, within which the sultan's camp was located east of the fortress, on the vineyard hill of Zsibót-Turbék. At the beginning of the siege the previously set up Sultan's tent (and the camp around it) was situated near a lake, at an area much closer to the fortress, which was unlikely to be safe enough. After having arrived at the area under the fortress, the Sultan moved into the camp of the grand Vizier for a short time. Later he resettled at the final camp, which had been established a little further away on the vineyard hill. The mentioned lake/swamp has dried up by today; as it has been identified by our studies. Later the two Sultan camp sites became a source of misunderstandings.
2) The Sultan's internal organs were buried. His case of death was being kept a secret from the army for 48 days. The question remains scientifically controversial. According to the standpoint of the research group, if the basic preservation procedures had not been applied, the Sultan’s death could not have been concealed. There have not yet been any definitive, new sources or evidence found in this respect. 
3) The Sultan's camp site has been marked and it has been associated with an orchard. Later, the surveillance of the site was assigned to the sanjak bey of Szigetvár and the dervishes od Halvet. Two nearby villages (Becefa and Csütörtökhely) had been assigned to look after the area.
4) Probably between 1573-77 a türbe was built over the place, which certainly existed until 1692, when it was demolished.
5) The assumptions that the location of the türbe is to be found by the creek Almás, are false. That area was wet, swampy, unsuitable for construction at that time. The hypothesis is not supported by the sources.
6) According to the sources a mosque, a dervish cloister and barracks were built near the türbe, which was surrounded by a palisade. Over time, a tavern, a medrese, a hamam and an inn (hán) were also built next to the türbe to serve the needs of the local people and the travelers. 50-60 soldiers did military service in the palisade. Outside the palisade there was a kaszaba, which was ruined in the late 1680s. The kaszaba was the size of two mahalles. An ecclesiastical foundation (vakuf) was established with properties, which was ordered to be provided for the türbe and the mosque.
7) The Bosnian Szokollu family, that gave grand viziers for the empire, played a crucial role both in the construction as well as in the maintenance of the türbe and the related buildings.
8) Due to the interpretations of the written sources and the subsequent on-site field trips, we could identify an Ottoman settlement on the vinyard hill of Zsibót. This settlement shows an urban image. It was of considerable size, surrounded by a 3-4-metre deep ditch (seemingly of ¾ type for now), which served security purposes. The studied site is a privately owned vinyard and orchard (expanding to about a dozen vinyard properties). This slows down and hampers the archaeological type research. Based on the observations so far, a wealthy population lived here, that used Balkan and Turkish ceramics. On the basis of the surface examinations so far, it can already be clearly seen that scattered traces of luxury goods are observable (Chinese porcelain, Persian faience, glass). In addition to these, silver coin finds have also been excavated. Our assumption is - that can only be proved by further studies - that we have found the occupied settlement of Turbék, the previously mentioned kaszaba. The settlement  itself is unique, there is no known parallel to it in the area of the Ottoman occupation.  The establishment of this highly unusual settlement must have been induced by the türbe of Sulejman, which was built with commemorating, sacral and political purposes.
9) Further studies are needed to clarify the emerged anomalies, to determine the  construction history of the kaszaba and for the accurate localization of the türbe.  The public announcement must be followed by providing the insurance and security of the area, and the safe storage of the objects of art and archaeological finds.

The evidences that have been uncovered in the course of the research will be  presented under the rules of publishing.

Szigetvár, 20th September 2013

Norbert Pap, PhD

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